Sentence | Kinds of Sentences | Parts Of sentences | Direct and indirect Object

Sentence

 

A group of words that makes a complete sense is called sentence. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with full stop , a question mark or a sign of exclamation.

Examples:

1.     Allama Iqbal is our national poet.

2.     The sun rises in the east.

3.     The rose smells sweet.

4.     Pakistan is an agriculture country.

5.     There are sheep in the meadow.

 

Parts of a sentence

Subject:  The thing or person you are talking about is called a subject, for example                                                                                                                   

Shahid, he , she ,they, you etc.

Verb: A word that describes an action or state is called a verb, for example has, have, am, is, are, come, go, drink, eat etc.

Object:  A person or thing to which something is done is called an object.

Examples

The words with green color are subjects, orange are verb and yellow are objects

1.     They are farmers.

2.     I am a boy.

3.     He was my cousin.

4.     She eats mangoes.

5.     I learn my lesson.

6.     He writes a letter.

7.     I shall win.

8.     We run.

9.     You tell a story.

10. They have a car.

Subject and predicate

 

Every sentence has a subject and a predicate.

Subject: The part of a sentence which names the person or thing we are speaking about is called a subject.

Predicate: The part of a sentence which tells something about the subject is called a predicate.

Examples

Subject

Predicate

H.verb/Verb

Object

She

Wrote

a letter.

He

Is

My brother.

They

Are 

Working in office.

Sana

Laughed.

 

My friend

Came

To me.

 

Direct object and indirect object

 

A direct object is the noun or pronoun receiving the action. A direct object answer the question 'what?'. Look again at the example from above: 'She wrote a letter.' The action is 'write,' so ask yourself, 'what is being written?' The 'Letter' is being written, and so the letter is the direct object.

Note: A direct object is usually a non-living thing.

Indirect Object: an indirect object is the noun or pronoun affected by the action and indirect object answer the question whom? You can say that indirect object is the recipient of direct object.

Note: An indirect object is usually a living thing.

Example:

1.     Akbar gave a book.                Direct object

2.     Akbar gave Nasir a book.      Indirect Object

In the first sentence ‘Akbar gave a book’. The ‘book’ is the direct object. In the second sentence we have two objects ‘ a book’ and ‘Nasir’. ‘ A book ‘ is the direct object and ‘Nasir’ is the indirect Object.

 

Note: If a sentence contain direct and indirect object both then indirect object should come first.

Example:

1.     My mother bought me a car. 

In this sentence me living thing and is indirect object and car is non-living thing and is direct object.

But if we brought direct object first then we have to use for or to as

1.     My mother brought a car for me.

2.     Shahid gave a pen to me.

Read the following sentences carefully.

           Sentences

1.     He gave Aslam a flower.

2.     She showed me a camera

3.     Our grandmother told us a story.

4.     He sent them a car.

5.     I bought Aslam a shirt.

 

Direct Object

Indirect object

Flower

Aslam

Camera

Me

Story

Us

Car

Them

Shirt

Aslam

 

Kinds of Sentences

 

There are five kinds of sentences according to their meanings.

1.     Declarative Sentences

2.     Interrogative Sentences

3.     Imperative Sentences

4.     Exclamatory Sentences

5.     Optative Sentences

 

1)    Declarative Sentences

A declarative Sentence makes a statement.

1.     The players are playing cricket.

2.     The bell is ringing.

3.     They were not sleeping.

4.     The birds are not chirping.

 

2)     Interrogative Sentences

If something is asked in a sentence, it is called an interrogative sentence.

1.     Do they quarrel?

2.     Do you take tea?

3.     Is your father at home?

4.     Is he sick?

 

3)    Imperative Sentences

A sentence which expresses a command, advice, a request or a prohibition is called an imperative sentence.

1.     Open the door.

2.     Please help me.

3.     Speak up.

4.     Do not split on the floor.

5.     Go to your room.

 

4)    Exclamatory Sentences

A sentence which shows surprise, anger or excitement is called an exclamatory sentence.

1.     Hurrah, we have won the match!

2.     How foolish he is!

3.     What a shot!

4.     How cold the night is!

Note: An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark ( ! )

5)    Optative Sentences

The sentence which express some pray, wish, desire or hope are called optative sentences.

1.     Long live Pakistan.

2.     May you go to hell.

3.     May you live long.

4.     May we win the match.

5.     May Allah help you.

 

Examples of different kinds of sentences

 

Identify different kinds of sentences

Sentences

Types

May you recover soon.

Optative

Bring me a glass of water, please.

Imperative

Did he go to school?

Interrogative

I cannot come to shop.

Declarative

He goes for a morning walk daily.

Declarative

May God protect you.

Optative

Hurrah! We have won the match.

Exclamatory

Open the door.

Imperative

He works hard in exams.

Declarative

 

Note: Negative Sentences come in kind of declarative sentences.

Kinds of Sentences Construction Wise

 

There are three main kinds of sentences according to their construction.

1.     Simple sentences

2.     Compound sentences

3.     Complex sentences

 

Simple Sentences

 

It consists of one basic verb and expresses one thought.

Examples:

1.     We are friends.

2.     The cow gives milk.

3.     They are farmers.

4.     The children are playing.

 

Compound Sentences

 

A simple sentence has just one subject and predicate. A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences.

Examples:

Simple sentences: The class started. We opened our books.

Compound sentences: The class started , and we opened our books.

Another examples with more than two sentences

Compound sentences: The class started , and we opened our books, and the teacher taught us a lesson.

More Examples

1.     Sana is my friend, and I help him.

2.     Adil is poor, yet she is honest.

3.     He is late, so you should go now.

4.     They could not understand it nor could we.

5.     The weather was cloudy, but it did not rain.

6.     You should go there, or you should wait for him.

 

Complex Sentences

 

A complex sentence has one independent clause (main clause) and one or two dependent clauses (Subordinating clauses).

Examples:

Dependent Clause

Independent clause

Because they were hardworking,

They earned a lot.

If you go there,

Buy a mobile for me.

Whenever she comes,

We have a chat.

After the game ended,

We had lunch.

When you see Aslam,

Give her the keys.

 

 

 

 

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